What are the different types of therapy?
There are many great ways of practising counselling or psychotherapy and this can make it confusing to know how to choose an appropriate therapist.
Research suggests that the therapeutic relationship itself is more important for a good outcome than the particular theories your therapist favours. This means that if your therapist succeeds in helping you to feel safe, accepted and treated with respect and perhaps also challenges you in a positive constructive way, you are likely to be able to make good use of your sessions.
It can nevertheless be useful to have some understanding of the wide range of approaches that therapists may have been trained in and will use in deciding how to work with you. You may find one approach more appealing than another or find that some approaches are more suited to your particular needs than others.
Different approaches to counselling have different ideas about human development, where psychological problems come from and the best way to use ‘talking therapy’ to help. Some counsellors, for example, will encourage you to take the lead in what is discussed and to support you in realising that you are more capable and resourceful than you may feel. Others may be more ‘directive’ and will teach you ways of changing your beliefs and behaviour by, for example giving you ‘homework’ exercises.
Here is a list of some of the different types of counselling with a brief description - please click on the type below to read the description. There are other types of counselling, so if you need any more information please contact us.
- Behavioural therapy
Behavioural therapy is based on the theory that you can ‘unlearn’ learnt behaviour or change that behaviour, without focusing on the reason behind the original behaviour. People with compulsive and obsessive disorders, fears, phobias and addictions may benefit from this type of therapy. Originally, behaviour therapy and cognitive therapies were distinct from each other. They have tended to be combined to produce what is now known as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy or CBT.
- Children and Young People's Therapy
Therapy for children and young people aims to provide support with social, emotional or behavioural concerns. Children and Young People's Therapists have specialist knowledge, skills and training to work with the client group.
It is advisable to choose one on a specialist CYPT Accredited register.
- Cognitive analytical therapy
This is an example of an Integrative approach. It is a short term, structured and directive therapy which explores the client’s language and thinking, and also the link between historical, cultural and social factors on how they function. It then encourages the client to develop the skills to change destructive patterns of behaviour and negative ways of thinking and acting. It was devised to fit NHS needs for short term treatment of a variety of problems. It requires specialist training.
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
CBT has become very well known as a treatment of choice within the NHS for symptoms of anxiety and depression. It seeks to change distressing behaviour relatively quickly by challenging unhelpful thoughts and beliefs and teaching the client to use coping strategies in the future. It aims to be ‘scientific’ by assessing and measuring change and does not prioritise finding original causes or exploring hidden potential. People with compulsive and obsessive disorders, fears, phobias and addictions tend to benefit from this type of therapy. Cognitive-behavioural therapists believe that while it is important to have a good, trusting relationship, but that is not enough in itself. A willingness to do homework tasks in between sessions is considered very important.
- Cognitive therapy
Cognitive therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviours, not external things, like people, situations, and events. Originally, behaviour therapy and cognitive therapies were distinct from each other. They have tended to be combined to produce what is now known as Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy or CBT.
Existential therapy is a style of therapy that places emphasis on the human condition as a whole. It focuses on the anxiety that occurs when a client confronts the conflict inherent in life.
- Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT)
EFT approaches healing from the belief that emotions are strongly linked to identity. Emotions are seen as guiding us in defining preferences and making decisions on a daily basis. EFT assumes that lack of emotional awareness is harmful, avoiding your emotions can lead to negative outcomes in your life and that over time, ignoring or avoiding your emotional response may alter your ability to process emotions later on. A therapist trained in emotion-focused therapy can help you to gain awareness of your emotions and understand them. EFT is a component of PCET for Depression (PCET CfD).
- Existential Therapy
Existential therapy is based upon the fundamental belief that all people experience intrapsychic conflict due to their interaction with certain conditions inherent in human existence, which are known as givens. The theories recognize at least four primary existential givens: Freedom and associated responsibility; Death; Isolation; Meaninglessness.
Confrontation with any of these 'givens' can fill an individual with a type of dread commonly referred to as existential anxiety. This anxiety is thought to reduce a person’s physical, psychological, social, and spiritual awareness, which may lead to significant long-term consequences.
Many clients find that being helped to face their anxieties and negative thoughts, and realising that these are part of being human, enables them to move forward in life and deal with life’s problems in their own way. Helping the client focus on personal responsibility for making decisions, the therapist may integrate some humanistic approaches and techniques.
- Family therapy
Family therapy explores family relationships. It has some similarities with Relationship therapy and works by looking in particular at the family as a whole, rather than working with a single person in the family unit. The focus is on how families interact together and the therapist's aim is to involve the whole family in finding positive solutions. It requires specialist training.
- Gestalt Therapy
Gestalt therapy is one of the therapies which belong within the Humanistic approach. It places a lot of emphasis on helping the client understand their non-verbal and body language, here-and-now behaviour and potential for positive change. The client will be encouraged, and sometimes challenged, to accept responsibility for their actions, decisions and feelings. It is likely to be suited to people who are willing to try to do this. Modern Gestalt therapy is not, however, necessarily a ‘confrontational’ approach.
- Humanistic Therapy
The Humanistic approach to therapy, which is based on humanistic-existential psychology, includes amongst others Person-Centred Experiential therapy, Gestalt therapy and Transactional Analysis. It emphasises human beings’ potential for growth and positive development. It views the problems clients bring to counselling as the result of unmet needs and blocked emotions rather than as being due to unconscious conflicts or faulty thinking. It provides an important alternative perspective to the ‘medical model’ which sees problems as symptoms of ‘mental illness’.
Hypnotherapy uses the technique of hypnosis to induce a deep state of relaxation during which the unconscious mind is highly receptive to new ideas. Accessing this part of the mind through hypnosis can help to change behaviour, attitudes and emotions, as well as manage pain, anxiety, stress-related illnesses and bad habits, including promoting personal development. To find out more, visit our partner organisation the National Hypnotherapy Society.
- Integrative approaches
Many counsellors describe themselves as ‘Integrative’. This means that rather than specializing in one traditional approach, they seek to combine aspects of different approaches into a recognised integrative approach to provide the most effective way of working.
Many counsellors describe what they do as integrative without following a specific integrative model. They should nevertheless be able to explain clearly to you how you will work together and what you can expect.
- Internal Family Systems
Internal Family Systems therapy is a gentle yet powerful practice guided by the wisdom of your internal system. You will come to know the multiple parts of your mind and learn about the valuable qualities that each contains. You’ll be able to help parts which are causing conflict or feeling unhappy and find and heal parts which have been wounded and suppressed. This evidence-based method can bring transformation and healing to your entire system.
Please note: IFS training alone would not meet current criteria for the Accredited Register.
- Multimodal therapy
This is an example of an Integrative approach devised by psychologist Arnold Lazarus and originating in behaviour therapy. This approach uses broader techniques by looking at how the client functions overall in many areas of their life. The therapist is specifically trained to choose techniques most likely to be helpful and these are likely to include assertiveness training, anxiety management and visualisation.
- Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)
NLP tends to be used as part of an overall therapeutic approach. NLP training alone would not meet current criteria for the NCPS Accredited Register.
- Person-centred counselling
Person-centred counselling is an important part of what is often referred to as Person-Centred Experiential Therapy (PCET).
- Person-Centred Experiential Therapy for Depression (PCET CfD)
PCET for Depression (PCET CfD) is a NIHCE approved treatment offered within NHS Talking Therapies. It integrates elements of emotion-focused therapy with person-centred counselling. It is limited to 20 sessions and requires specialist training.
- Pluralistic Therapy
Talking therapy has a history of disagreements between therapists about which theoretical approach, or combination of approaches, is 'the best'. A pluralistic perspective is about valuing the full diversity of the many different approaches to counselling and psychotherapy, and not assuming that any one of them is best for all clients. Based on the person-centred approach, it also emphasises the value of really listening to the client about what they want and need from therapy, and trying to tailor the therapy as much as possible to what they need.
Psychoanalysis originated with the work of Sigmund Freud, from which many different theories and ways of working have developed. It deals with the exploration of the unconscious mind, and requires a long specialist training. The analyst can make you aware of unconscious patterns so you can change them. Your relationship with the analyst is important as it can highlight your patterns of behaviour within relationships generally.
- Psychodynamic Counselling
Psychodynamic counselling developed from psychoanalysis. It focuses on the unconscious mind and past experiences and explores their influence on current behaviour. You will be encouraged to talk about childhood relationships with parents and other significant people. As part of the therapy you may transfer and pass on deep feelings about yourself, your parents and others to the therapist. Although psychodynamic counselling can be practised in a short series of sessions, it is more usual for it to be a relatively lengthy process. It is likely to appeal to people who are interested in exploring their own unconscious processes and who can accept that the changes they are seeking may take time to achieve.
- Psychosexual Therapy
Psychosexual and Relationship Therapists are Relationship Therapists who have undertaken further specialist training to equip them to work specifically with a range of sexual difficulties, both physiological and psychological, as well as relationship problems arising from sexual issues.
NCPS registrants, when working with the specific modality of Psychosexual and Relationship Therapies will only do so with adult clients. Psychosexual and Relationship Therapies are strictly talk-based therapies that do not involve physical touch and do not entail any medical procedures or examinations.
It is best to choose a psychosexual therapist on a specialist register.
- Relationship Therapy
Relationship Therapists (RT), sometimes known as Relationship or Couple Counsellors, work with clients to find a way through difficulties they may be facing in their intimate/personal relationship/s. They work primarily with adult couples, though may also see individuals, families, and young adults. The focus is on interpersonal as well as intrapersonal issues. Working with more than one client in the consulting room requires the ability to work with the dynamics of clients’ relationships with each other. Issues of contracting and confidentiality may be more complex than with individual work. Practitioners need to have undergone specialist training.
NCPS registrants, when working with the specific modality of Relationship Therapy will only do so with adult clients. Relationship Therapy is strictly a talk-based therapy that does not involve physical touch and does not entail any medical procedures or examinations.
It is best to choose a relationship therapist on a specialist register.
- Solution-focused (brief) therapy
This kind of therapy, an example of Brief or time limited therapy, focuses on a particular issue and promotes positive change, rather than dwelling on the issue or past problems. You are encouraged to focus positively on what you do well, your strengths and resources and to set goals to achieve the changes you want to make. It is likely to appeal to people who prefer a highly practical, goal-oriented approach to problem-solving.
- Transactional Analysis (TA)
Transactional Analysis, though rooted in psychoanalysis, is often considered to belong within the Humanistic approach to therapy. It was devised and made popular by the psychologist Eric Berne. It offers particular models and ways of understanding clients and the problems they bring to therapy, including the analysis of interactions between people in terms of the 3 ‘ego states’ of Parent, Adult and Child. Many therapists and clients find this valuable.